Middle Passage


Jesús, Estrella, Esperanza, Mercy:

Sails flashing to the wind like weapons,
Sharks following the moans the fever and the dying;
Horror the corposant and compass rose.

Middle Passage:
Voyage through death
To life upon these shores.

“10 April 1800
Blacks rebellious. Crew uneasy. Our linguist says
Their moaning is a prayer for death,
Our and their own. Some try to starve themselves.
Lost three this morning leaped with crazy laughter
To the waiting sharks, sang as they went under.”

Desire, Adventure, Tartar, Ann:

Standing to America, bringing home
Black gold, black ivory, black seed.

Deep in the festering hold thy father lies, of his bones
New England pews are made, those are altar lights that were his eyes.

Jesus Saviour Pilot Me
Over Life’s Tempestuous Sea

We pray that Thou wilt grant, O Lord,
Safe passage

to our vessels bringing
Heathen souls unto Thy chastening.

Jesus Saviour

“8 bells. I cannot sleep, for I am sick
With fear, but writing eases fear a little
Since still my eyes can see these words take shape
Upon the page & so I write, as one
Would turn to exorcism. 4 days scudding,
But now the sea is calm again. Misfortune
Follows in our wake like sharks (our grinning
Tutelary gods). Which one of us
Has killed an albatross? A plague among
Our blacks Ophthalmia: blindness & we
Have jettisoned the blind to no avail.
It spreads, the terrifying sickness spreads.
Its claws have scratched sight from the Capt.’s eyes
& there is blindness in the fo’c’sle
& we must sail 3 weeks before we come
To port.”

What port awaits us, Davy Jones’ or home? I’ve
Heard of slavers drifting, drifting, playthings of wind and storm and
Chance, their crews gone blind, the jungle hatred crawling
Up on deck.

Thou Who Walked On Galilee

“Deponent further sayeth The Bella J
Left the Guinea Coast
With cargo of five hundred blacks and odd
For the barracoons of Florida:

“That there was hardly room ‘tween-decks for half
The sweltering cattle stowed spoon-fashion

That some went mad of thirst and tore their flesh
And sucked the blood:

“That Crew and Captain lusted with the comeliest
Of the savage girls kept naked in the cabins;
That there was one they called The Guinea Rose
And they cast lots and fought to lie with her:

“That when the Bo’s’n piped all hands, the flames
Spreading from starboard already were beyond
Control, the negroes howling and their chains
Entangled with the flames:

“That the burning blacks could not be reached,
That the Crew abandoned ship,
Leaving their shrieking negresses behind,
That the Captain perished drunken with the wenches:

“Further Deponent sayeth not.”

Pilot Oh Pilot Me


Aye, lad, and I have seen those factories,
Gambia, Rio Pongo, Calabar;
Have watched the artful mongos baiting traps
Of war wherein the victor and the vanquished

Were caught as prizes for our barracoons.
Have seen the nigger kings whose vanity
And greed turned wild black hides of Fellatah,
Mandingo, Ibo, Kru to gold for us.

And there was one King Anthracite we named him
Fetish face beneath French parasols
Of brass and orange velvet, impudent mouth
Whose cups were carven skulls of enemies:

He’d honor us with drum and feast and conjo
And palm-oil-glistening wenches deft in love,
And for tin crowns that shone with paste,
Red calico and German-silver trinkets

Would have the drums talk war and send
His warriors to burn the sleeping villages
And kill the sick and old and lead the young
In coffles to our factories.

Twenty years a trader, twenty years,
For there was wealth aplenty to be harvested
From those black fields, and I’d be trading still
But for the fevers melting down my bones.


Shuttles in the rocking loom of history,
The dark ships move, the dark ships move,
Their bright ironical names
Like jests of kindness on a murderer’s mouth;
Plough through thrashing glister toward
Fata morgana’s lucent melting shore,
Weave toward New World littorals that are
Mirage and myth and actual shore.

Voyage through death,
Voyage whose chartings are unlove.

A charnel stench, effluvium of living death
Spreads outward from the hold,
Where the living and the dead, the horribly dying,
Lie interlocked, lie foul with blood and excrement.

Deep in the festering hold thy father lies, the corpse of mercy
Rots with him, rats eat love’s rotten gelid eyes. But, oh, the
Living look at you with human eyes whose suffering accuses you, whose
Hatred reaches through the swill of dark to strike you like a leper’s
Claw. You cannot stare that hatred down or chain the fear that stalks
The watches and breathes on you its fetid scorching breath; cannot
Kill the deep immortal human wish, the timeless will.

“But for the storm that flung up barriers
Of wind and wave, The Amistad, señores,
Would have reached the port of Príncipe in two,
Three days at most; but for the storm we should
Have been prepared for what befell.
Swift as a puma’s leap it came. There was
That interval of moonless calm filled only
With the water’s and the rigging’s usual sounds,
Then sudden movement, blows and snarling cries
And they had fallen on us with machete
And marlinspike. It was as though the very
Air, the night itself were striking us.
Exhausted by the rigors of the storm,
We were no match for them. Our men went down
Before the murderous Africans. Our loyal
Celestino ran from below with gun
And lantern and I saw, before the cane –
Knife’s wounding flash, Cinquez,
That surly brute who calls himself a prince,
Directing, urging on the ghastly work.
He hacked the poor mulatto down, and then
He turned on me. The decks were slippery
When daylight finally came. It sickens me
To think of what I saw, of how these apes
Threw overboard the butchered bodies of
Our men, true Christians all, like so much jetsam.
Enough, enough. The rest is quickly told:
Cinquez was forced to spare the two of us
You see to steer the ship to Africa,
And we like phantoms doomed to rove the sea
Voyaged east by day and west by night,
Deceiving them, hoping for rescue,
Prisoners on our own vessel, till
At length we drifted to the shores of this
Your land, America, where we were freed
From our unspeakable misery. Now we
Demand, good sirs, the extradition of
Cinquez and his accomplices to La
Havana. And it distresses us to know
There are so many here who seem inclined
To justify the mutiny of these blacks.
We find it paradoxical indeed
That you whose wealth, whose tree of liberty
Are rooted in the labor of your slaves
Should suffer the august John Quincey Adams
To speak with so much passion of the right
Of chattel slaves to kill their lawful masters
And with his Roman rhetoric weave a hero’s
Garland for Cinquez. I tell you that
We are determined to return to Cuba
With our slaves and there see justice done.
Or let us say ‘the Prince’ Cinquez shall die.”

The deep immortal human wish,
The timeless will:

Cinquez its deathless primaveral image,
Life that transfigures many lives.

Voyage through death
To life upon these shores.

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Middle Passage